C.P.R. WORKS BASIC FIRST AID


* * * PREVENTION. . . is the only way to reduce the amount of trauma which occurs to children.

FIRE - E.D.I.T.H. - Have an escape plan.

ELECTRIC CORDS / OUTLETS - Childproof all outlets.

HELMETS / CAR SEATS -

TRAUMA IS THE #1 KILLER OF CHILDREN

Buckle children in car seats correctly, and make sure your kids are wearing protective helmets and knee/elbow padding.

LOCKS ON CABINETS - So that children can't get to prescription meds. or poisons.

CHILDPROOF CURTAIN CORDS - A child dies every 2 weeks from strangulation. Cut the ends of looped cords and tie knots in the ends.

HEAD INJURY - Is characterized by unusual behavior, syncope, blown pupil, n/v > than twice, seizures may following the event.

Tx - Protect the cervical spine- don't move child after a critical fall, unless the pt. not breathing (Critical fall is 3 times the childs height).

AIRWAY PROBLEMS -

ASTHMA - is occlusion or narrowing of the bronchioles with mucosa. S/S - SOB, pt. leaning forward to catch breath, wheezes on exhalation, distress, and anxiety, cough and bluish tint.
Tx - assist patient with inhaler if available, loosen clothing, assist respirations, and call 911

CROUP - Bronchiolitis - edema of the upper airway, viral in nature(RSV), from age 2 mos.-2 years
S/S- presents with a seal bark cough, poss. Cyanosis, recent febrile illness.
Tx - remove patient to cool air to dialate airways which assist breathing, call 911 if problems persist.

EPIGLOTITIS - H influenza, where the epiglottis swells, causing narrowing of airway. Recent hx if flu Illness.

* * * * * MAY BECOME LIFE THREATENING * * * * *

S/S - has a rapid onset with the patient usually older than 5 years old, cherry red skin, possibly drooling, pain in swallowing.
Tx - assist respirations and call 911

BASIC WOUNDS

ABRASIONS - "skinned" surface of the body which are superficial.
Tx - Rinse off gross debris, clean and cover.

AVULSIONS - Are a flap of skin which is torn. Don't remove, the surgeon has a reference point for re-placing a large piece.
Tx - Rinse off gross debris, clean and cover.

LACERATION - Is any cut no matter how it was made.
Tx - Clean and cover, ice and elevate.

CONTUSION, ECCYMOSIS, BRUISE - Blood vessles broken beneath the skin, causing bleeding under the skin
Tx - Ice and elevate body part.

PUNCTURE - hole made in the epidural layer which may or may not bleed. Some bleeding is good, since it rinses contamination from the body.
Tx - Clean gross debris, clean with soap and water and cover with sterile dressings. (Follow up with tetanus vaccination if injury within 5 years of last booster)

BLEEDING CONTROL -

DIRECT PRESSURE - Is pressure applied to a wound - most commonly used in conjunction with ICE AND ELEVATION.

PRESSURE POINT - Is pressure applied to an artery -- rarely used because 2 arteries usually run down an extremity.

TOURNIQUET - Is to be used only in EXTREME CASES. . . It is your way of telling the surgeon to "Cut off my extremity, I don't need it any more."
This means to restrict all blood flow to an extremity- almost never used.
. . . unless your'e alone in the Yukon with a can of SPAM and a frozen chipmunk and a bear tears your arm off.

AMPUTATION - is normally associated with men, alcohol, and snow-blowers / lawn-mowers. They will likely have small amount of bleeding.
Tx - control bleeding with ICE AND ELEVATION..
If a digit is involved, rinse it off, wrap digit with dressing, place digit on ice, and transfer with pt.

NOSEBLEEDS - Usually no big deal, and may occur spontaneously. In children, a likely cause is probing ! !
Tx - lean head forward and pinch nose for 10 minutes.

BONE AND JOINT DISORDERS -

DISLOCATIONS - Are bones which are displaced from their normal physiological landmarks that may resemble fractures.
Tx -immobilize extremity and apply ICE AND ELEVATION..

STRAINS AND SPRAINS -Are muscles which are stretched beyond the normal limits of motion that are characterized by pain with use and swelling.
Tx -immobilize extremity and apply ICE AND ELEVATION..

FRACTURES - Are broken bones which may be characterized by deformity, pain, swelling, or discoloration.
Tx -immobilize extremity and apply ICE AND ELEVATION..

DISLODGED TEETH - wash off gross debris and put back in the original socket if possible.

ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES -

THERMAL BURNS -

* * * * NEVER APPLY GOO TO BURNS OR POP BLISTERS* * * *


1st degree - Are characterized by redness and pain on touch (ie. Sunburn).
Tx - remedy of choice for pain management.

2nd degree -Are characterized by 1st degree with blistering.
Tx - cool with copious water. Cover with sterile dressing.

3rd degree - Are characterized by 2nd degree with charring and "bulls-eye".
Usually associated with men, alcohol, and some type of fire source.
Tx - remove clothing which is contaminated / burning, cool with copious water and cover with dry sterile dressings.

CHEMICAL BURNS - Are characterized by swelling, redness, itching or burning at site.
Tx - remove excessive chemical from skin and treat like 2nd degree burn. * * * * DON'T BECOME A VICTIM AS WELL * * * *

CHEMICAL EYE INJURIES - Usually characterized by burning and blurred / loss of vision and watering
Tx - copious amounts of water, cover both eyes with dressings.

ELECTRICAL BURNS - Are similar to any other thermal burn.
Tx - DON'T BECOME A VICTIM AS WELL -- MAKE SURE POWER IS OFF ! !
Look for entry / exit wounds and cover with sterile dry dressings

HEAT EMERGENCIES -

HEAT CRAMPS - Are muscle cramps associated with activity ,typically on warm days.
Tx - cool body temperature and give oral fluids (ie. Gatoraid)

HEAT EXHAUSTION - Progression of heat cramps with increased temperature with sweating, dizziness, n/v & pale skin
Tx - cool body temperature, give oral fluids, & call 911. * * WATCH FOR VOMITTING **

HEAT STROKE - DIRE EMERGENCY ! - temp may exceed 105. Pt. Unconscious may not be breathing - Possible seizure activity.
Tx - cool body temperature immediately, call 911 and begin C.P.R. if needed.

COLD EMERGENCIES -

FROST NIP - Everybody who has ever built a snowman has had this, with redness and numbness of a body part.
Tx - rewarm the victim by submersion of the part in warm water (Your hand must be in the same water)or under armpits

FROST BITE - characterized by painful loss of sensation with waxy pale appearance
Tx - same as FROST NIP - * * * MAKE SURE PART DOESN'T RE-FREEZE * * *

POISONING -
* * * * RUSH PRESBY. POISON HOTLINE 1-800-942-5969 * * * *


INHALED - Are gaseous fumes such as CO, smoke, or dust which may cause SOB, apnea, or LOC
Tx - identify poison, call 911, and move victim to open air.

INGESTED - Some type of oral / fluid ingestion such as pills or cleaning solvents.
Tx - identify poison, call 911 / Poison control

ANAPHYLAXIS - Is an acute allergic reaction characterized by swelling of the skin, redness, hives, possibly SOB, and difficulty in swallowing.
Tx - identify allergen, remove victim from substance and call 911.

BEE STINGS - Have generalized swelling at the site of the sting with pain and numbness
Tx - allow pt. to self administer EPI-PEN, A.B.C.'s call 911 and ice to area

MEDICAL EMERGENCIES -

SEIZURES - generalized, uncontrolled clonic / tonic movement.
Tx - maintain pt. airway, call 911, and keep pt. from objects that could injury them.

FEBRILE SEIZURES -seizures brought on by a rapid buildup of temperature (generally over 101.8)
Tx - maintain airway, cool body temperature, call 911

DIABETES MELLITUS - Here's the scoop, either your sugar is too high, or it's too low. A high blood sugar is generally no big life threatening emergency in relation to a low blood sugar.


DKA - HYPERGLYCEMIA - characterized by frequent urination,dry skin, thirst, hunger, rapid Breathing, acetone breath, abdominal pain, n/v. and bounding pulse
Tx - fluids if tolerated, call 911

INSULIN SHOCK - HYPOGLYCEMIA - characterized by unconsciousness or drunken behavior, Slurred speech, weak thready pulse, cool clammy skin.
Tx - if able, give sugar via juice or candy bar and call 911

| Back to Previous Page |